The book is called "BlindSight" by Peter Watts, and I've added it to my LibraryThing, there is a link to my full review below.
As an added bonus (I discovered this after buying the book) the author has published it under a creative commons license and you can read the entire book online for free. How cool is that? (Read it here)
There is a lot to chew on in this book, but my post subject says it all. Seriously though, don't judge based on that, it's a good book. No really...